Study of the Month

A novel approach to evaluating mobile smartphone screen time for iPhones: feasibility and preliminary findings

By Maggie Bushman/ Communications Intern

Today, smartphone ownership has increased even among teens and adolescents. Media usage among these age groups is a hot topic of research, however, current research methods used to evaluate teen and adolescent screen time pose some challenges.

The common methods used to understand screen time are self-reporting and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). EMA is comprised of repeated sampling of a subject’s experiences and behaviors in real time and in their natural environments. A disadvantage to self-reporting is that it can be exposed to bias. When self-reporting, participants might over or under estimate their app use, making the data inconsistent. On the other hand, EMA requires participants to complete multiple tasks a day. Participants are likely busy and are unable to commit to such a large time commitment, making this method burdensome.

This study proposes the use of a new methodology, the Battery Use Screenshot (BUS). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the BUS methodology.

To analyze its feasibility, the BUS method was implemented into a larger study that was looking at technology rules and health behaviors among younger adolescents. Participants of the larger study were asked to complete a survey, which included uploading a screenshot of their battery use. The data from the battery screenshots was analyzed to determine their most frequently used apps/functions. This study found that Safari was the most commonly used app. The other frequently used apps/functions can be seen below.

Infographic page 1

Infographic page 2

The data showed that the BUS approach allowed for an easier way for both participants and researchers to keep track of media usage, unlike self-reporting and EMA. Along with its strengths, this method does have its weaknesses. Of the participants that owned a smartphone, only half of them were willing or able to upload their screenshot. The reason for this weakness could be caused by a variety of factors. One factor is the age group of participants. Or that Qualtrics surveys are completed on computers and not smartphones.  Another possibility could be the amount of compensation provided for participating.

Another hurdle with this study was that there were participants who uploaded incomplete data. This could be attributed to which type of iOS operating system participants were using. Older versions didn’t show all of the criteria that the study observed.

Overall, this approach offers a potential avenue for researchers to both improve upon and eventually find the best ways to monitor app use in real-time. In further studies, this BUS approach could be adapted to Android phones as well.

The use of the Battery Use Screenshot methodology could provide researchers with accurate media use data to further answer questions on the effects of media use and health outcomes among young teens and adolescents.

******

Find the full article here.

Infinite Scrolling, a blog post by Jim Smalley, urges readers to take a, “social media vacation.” He explains how to check battery usage to see which apps are being used the most. He was using the Battery Use Screenshot methodology.

Advertisements
Study of the Month

Recreational cannabis business pages on social media: A content analysis applying the Washington Administrative Code

By Maggie Bushman/ Communications Intern

In 2012, Washington State legalized recreational marijuana for people over the age of 21. This legislation brought up concerns about adolescents’ consumption of marijuana. There are many consequences of marijuana use among this group which include difficulties in school, memory loss, and the use of other drugs.

A big concern was how marijuana businesses were promoting themselves and their products on social media. Adolescent’s frequent use of social media could make them vulnerable to these messages about marijuana use. Social media allows for followers to engage with content by liking or sharing a post.

The Washington State Liquor Control Board Washington Administrative Code 314-55-155 (WAC) implemented advertising restrictions for marijuana businesses.

Washington Administrative Code 314-55-155 (WAC)

These regulations banned language that promoted:

  1. Overconsumption
  2. Curative or therapeutic effects
  3. Appeal to youth

They also required that every message must include warnings about:

  1. The risks of intoxication
  2. Driving under the influence
  3. Health risks
  4. Prohibiting underage use

The purpose of this study was to analyze whether marijuana businesses were adhering to these restrictions on their social media pages. It also looked at whether the use of the warnings decreased engagement with their social media content.

This study used a content analysis on posts on Facebook and Twitter pages of recreational marijuana businesses in Washington State. Posts were from December 1, 2015 – November 30, 2016. The businesses were identified through searches on Facebook and Twitter. The website Weedmaps was also used to locate businesses. To be included in the study they had to be located in Washington State and had both social media profiles since 2015. Thirty-eight businesses were identified.

The results of the study are as follows:

Overconsumption: Seventeen posts out of 1027 (1.7%) used language that promoted overconsumption. Seven of the 17 posts came from one company’s Twitter.

Curative or therapeutic effects: 137 posts (13.3%) promoted curative or therapeutic effects. A majority of these posts were about stress relief (11.8%) and the rest were saying that their product would help treat certain medical conditions (1.6%). Of the posts about stress relief, 105 of them came from one company. Also of the posts about treating medical conditions, 11 of the posts came from one company.

Youth appeal: Nine posts (0.88%) were using techniques to appeal to youth. Eight of them included an image appealing to youth and one of them actually included a picture of a youth.

Warnings: 110 posts (10.7%) included all of the warnings required of them. When comparing the engagement of posts with and without the warnings, this study found that there was no statistically significant differences between the number of likes or shares between posts that included or didn’t include the warnings.

This study showed that most marijuana businesses were consistent with the WAC regulations that prohibited overconsumption, treatment effects and youth appeal. However, there were some businesses in each category that disregarded the prohibited content. There is also evidence that few businesses were providing the required warnings. Those that did include the warning were not placing it in the same spot on every post.

These findings show that social media users who follow marijuana businesses pages may be exposed to at least one WAC category of prohibited content and they may never see a required warning. This finding is a concern because those followers may include adolescents.

There are many policy approaches that could provide solutions to this concern. One is to age-gate marijuana business pages. “Age-gating” means that each person will have to indicate their age before gaining access to the page. Another solution could include fines for violations of the regulations. There could also be a way to report content to social media companies, similar to bullying or other offensive content.

Study of the Month

Perspectives on smartphone ownership and use by early adolescents

By Maggie Bushman/ Communications Intern

Parents now have to decide the age in which their child should receive a smartphone, due to the rise in technology use among early adolescents. Previous research has shown that smartphones typically enter a child’s life in their “tweens”. There are many opinions for parents to drawn from as to which age is appropriate, but there is little evidence to back up these claims. It is also not known how tweens feel about smartphone ownership.

This study aimed to discuss smartphone ownership and use with early adolescents to further understand their perspectives.

Focus groups were conducted to collect qualitative data on tween perspectives’ of smartphone ownership and use. The data showed three main themes and two minor themes. The three main themes, maturity, deference to parents and accountability, were applied to three areas of focus.

Those areas of focus were…

  1. When an adolescent was ready to have their smartphone
  2. How a smartphone should be obtained
  3. Ongoing care and maintenance of a smartphone

The first major theme, maturity, frequently came up in reference to the first focus. Tweens felt that there was not an appropriate age when it comes to smartphone ownership. They expressed that maturity should be the deciding factor. Tweens described maturity as achieving certain milestones, such as joining more clubs or sports outside of school. In regards to the second focus, participants suggested that smartphone ownership should be a need and not a want. They also felt that with maturity comes responsibility. Being able to take care of the smartphone was a necessity for ownership in the eyes of the tweens.

Deference to parents was the second major theme. Tweens expressed that parents should be the ones to make the final decision of when their child should receive a smartphone. Many of the participants received smartphones in a variety of different ways, and most of them were happy with how their parents went about it. Tweens also addressed that their parents should have specific guidelines when it comes to smartphone use. These guidelines could include, setting a time limit per day, no phones before bed, or checking content on their phone. Early adolescents observed that there should be restrictions, but those restrictions should be very specific and enforced.

The last major theme was accountability. In terms of receiving a smartphone, tweens felt that they should be able to hold themselves accountable for avoiding negative aspects of media use, such as cyberbullying or addiction. Tweens also suggested that they be financially responsible for some costs that go along with owning a smartphone. Along with financial responsibility, they also expressed that if they were to misplace or break their smartphone they should be held accountable.

This study found three major themes, but it also had hints of two minor themes throughout focus groups. The minor themes discredited a few assumptions about tweens and smartphones. The first minor theme was that tweens wanted to start the conversation about getting a smartphone. The second minor theme was that not all tweens were using their smartphones the same way. Differences could be seen across demographic groups and individuals.

This study is meant to inform parents about tweens’ perceptions of smartphone ownership. These themes can be a tool for parents when their tween wants to discuss smartphone ownership.

Perspective on smartphone ownership and use by early adolescents can be found in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

 

Perspectives on smartphone ownership and use by early adolescents
Megan A Moreno, MD, MSEd, MPH,Bradley R Kerr, MS1 Marina Jenkins, BS,1
Esther Lam,BS2 Faisal Malik, MD, MPH,2, 3
1Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison;
2University of Washington, Seattle, WA
3Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA

 

Study of the Month

“#proana: Pro-eating disorder socialization on Twitter” Study of the Month

URS-Nina and Alina
Arseniev-Koehler (left) presenting at the Undergraduate Research Symposium

Across various online platforms, like Facebook, there are Pro-Eating Disorder (Pro-ED) communities that portray eating disorders as lifestyles and idealize thinness. These communities are also known as “Pro-anorexia,” or ProAna. These communities have been studied on many platforms, but SMAHRT alum Alina Arseniev-Koehler wanted to examine these communities through the lens of Twitter. Twitter is an extremely popular social media site among adolescents, and Pro-ana communities had yet to be studied on this site. Arseniev-Koehler found this to be a unique setting for Pro-ED because content tends to be publicly exchanged.

Arseniev-Koehler conducted her study “#proana: Pro-eating disorder socialization on Twitter” in order to examine what these communities look like on the Twitter platform. For her study they identified 45 Twitter profiles which publicly self-identified as part of the Pro-ED social movement. They then investigated how these profiles were venues for social expression of an identity focused on eating disorders, finding that one-third (36.4%) of profiles’ tweets contained references to eating disorders. Arseniev-Koehler also investigated the extent of community formation around eating-disordered expression by examining content from 3,719 followers of these 45 profiles. Followers are described as social connections on Twitter, much like one’s ‘friends’ on Facebook. From this examination, they found that 44.5% of these followers also displayed an interest in eating disorders. To explain further, the profiles with more tweets about eating-disorder related content tended to have more followers who also self-identified as interested in eating disorders.

The findings of this study had a couple different aspects. First, the findings illustrated how profiles which self-identify as Pro-ED may express disordered eating patterns through tweets. The second aspect of their findings suggested that these profiles have an audience of followers, many of whom also reference eating disorders in their own profiles. This study highlighted the extent to which Pro-ED on Twitter is a social rather than individualistic phenomenon. Socialization on Twitter might provide social support, but in the Pro-ED context, this activity might also reinforce an eating disorder focused identity.

URS-team pic
Arseniev-Koehler (center) at the Undergraduate Research Symposium at the University of Washington

Alina Arseniev-Koehler was a member of SMAHRT from 2013 to 2015, and was instrumental in the work done on eating disorders on social media, particularly through the previously summarized “#proana: Pro-eating disorder socialization on Twitter” study. She began her second year in the Sociology PhD program atthe University of California Los Angeles this past fall. This year, she is working on a Master’s research project, for which she is investigating how the portrayal of obesity and overweight has changed over the past three decades in the news media. She gained inspiration for this project from her previous work at SMAHRT and her work with social media and eating disorders, while also presenting an opportunity to apply new theories and methods she has learned at her time at UCLA.

For example, she has been analyzing news articles in her Master’s project with a tool called Word2Vec. Word2Vec uses “machine-learning,” meaning that it is given minimal instruction on how to analyze data, and instead learns to do so itself based on examples of how words are used in the data. This was Arseniev-Koehler’s first experience working intensively with machine-learning, and she loves how it can surprise and challenge human researchers. To illustrate, she found that Word2Vec represented the word “fat” in her news data as a word similar to “carbohydrates” “calories” and “protein.” “Fat” did not mean “overweight” as she expected. This experience has also sparked a larger interest in machine-learning for Arseniev-Koehler. As she learns more about how machine-learning structures our everyday lives, she is now fascinated to see how algorithms can sway our experiences, opportunities, and knowledge. She hopes to incorporate this research direction into her Masters project.

Even though she is only one year into graduate school, her research interests have widened and expanded since arriving; however, her ideas and values are rooted in previous research experiences. Arseniev-Koehler is still navigating how to get the most out of her graduate experience, while learning how to distribute her time across classes, research, and engaging in the larger academic community. This fall, Arseniev-Koehler had the opportunity to serve as a graduate mentor for an undergraduate at UCLA who is embarking on her own research project. Even within Arseniev-Koehler’s program there are many possible directions to explore in terms of research and career, and she is excited to explore these opportunities in the coming years.

Study of the Month

“Cyberbullying Among College Students” Study of the Month

sahm-2013-004

The idea of “bullying” has radically evolved over time. What was once thought to be an aggressive verbal or physical act that primarily happened at school, the introduction of technology and social media has transformed bullying into a phenomenon that can follow adolescents throughout their everyday lives – otherwise known as cyberbullying. With advancements in technology, bullies now have an online platform to reach into victims private spaces at any time of the day, giving them the confidence to be mean and hurtful behind the protection of a screen. This has been leveraged and made easier with networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram. Cyberbullying in middle school and high school is a well-known issue; but, do these behaviors change when students make the transition from their senior year of high school to their freshman year of college?

In 2011, Rajitha Kota joined the SMAHRT team with the goal of answering this question, and what cyberbullying looks like in the college population. Kota gained interest in the topic because the concept of cyberbullying was getting a lot of media attention, including disturbing news stories about the serious consequences for both bullies and victims. Although she had passion for researching this topic, when starting her study she noticed there was not much information about cyberbullying in college students, and decided to investigate the issue amongst the college population. This interest was studied by Kota and developed into her paper “Cyberbullying Among College Students,” which we are pleased to feature as our February Study of the Month.

559998_10151448095479851_1114723432_n
Kota (second from left) enjoying time outdoors with fellow SMAHRT colleagues

Kota decided to perform a focus group study and recruited people belonging to groups that are traditionally at-risk for bullying, as well as students from the general population. These at-risk groups included LBGTQ students and racial minorities. Forty-two students participated in the focus group study, and her team used the constant comparative approach to find themes and representative quotations. Kota asked participants questions about their views and perceptions of cyberbullying on campus, as well as examples of cyberbullying they had seen online. Kota explained that one of the most interesting findings to come out of the study was that the college students could not agree on a definition of cyberbullying. Although there was no consensus regarding a definition, the participants did agree that cyberbullying is mostly represented by three scenarios: hacking, airing dirty laundry, and mocking. Kota’s focus group participants gave useful and insightful examples and working definitions of the three scenarios of cyberbullying as previously mentioned. First, hacking involves gaining access to another user’s profile and posting on that profile without the owner’s permission – this is often characterized as occurring between roommates, close friends, or former romantic partners. Second, airing dirty laundry involved disagreements between roommates, romantic partners, or groups of friends, and one member posting about it on social media to shame one member of the relationship. Lastly, mocking involved publically teasing or putting down others based on posted content, such as insulting someone’s posted pictures or posting a picture that would embarrass another student.

“Cyberbullying Among College Students” found that participants generally agreed that bullying among older students could include attacking victims at the level of their beliefs or character, which might be concerning since college can be an important period of identity formation. Those who bully in college may also go on to continue that behavior into adulthood and into the workplace, by manipulating others to gain power or privilege. Therefore, college may be the last critical opportunity to intervene and prevent bullying behavior from occurring.

rajitha-shari

As mentioned earlier, Rajitha Kota joined SMAHRT in 2011, and this opportunity piqued her interest in adolescent medicine. That interest turned into a passion as Kota plans to work with the adolescent population in the future, and is still interested in the positive ways technology can be used to help this group make healthier choices. She is currently in her fourth year of medical school, planning to go into family medicine upon completion. Kota has fond memories of her time at SMAHRT, and told us it was one of the most enjoyable and formative experiences in her education. Through her time here Kota traveled, created her own research projects, gave an oral presentation at a national conference, mentored an undergraduate student, helped to write a grant for the Justice Department, published tons of papers, and while doing all of this was able to work with some of the most amazing people she has ever known!

Thank you, Rajitha for your dedication to adolescent health and SMAHRT and we cannot wait to see what your future holds. Be on the lookout next month for a new Study of the Month and an update on another SMAHRT alum!

 

Study of the Month

“Older Adolescents Perceptions of Internet Use” Study of the Month

sotm-1

#OnceASMAHRTieAlwaysASMAHRTie

Our team has had incredible members that have contributed greatly to the research and integrity of the Social Media and Adolescent Health Research Team – and we do not easily forget them! One of these SMAHRT alumnae is Rosalind Koff, who is currently a Survey Director at the NORC independent research institution at the University of Chicago. She served as an undergraduate Research Intern and Graduate Research Associate at SMAHRT and contributed greatly to the work done on the team. Our alumnae have accomplished so much outside of SMAHRT, and Koff is no exception. We are pleased to feature one of her studies completed while with SMAHRT, “Older Adolescents Perceptions of Internet Use” as our Study of the Month, while also showcasing what Koff has achieved after her time with SMAHRT.

img_3364
Koff presenting at Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine conference in 2012

How well can we actually quantify our personal internet use? Do we judge this off of assumptions; do we actually quantify the times we spend on our electronics? Koff examined these questions through her study that looked at self-reported internet use; focusing on how often and how long the respondent typically uses the internet each day. As the internet continues to become increasingly pervasive in our daily lives, it becomes a challenge to separate internet use with other parts of our daily lives and/or quantify their own personal internet use. Current perceptions and actual internet use behaviors that are established in older adolescence are likely to follow individuals throughout their adulthood. This is why it is particularly important among the adolescent population to understand their current perceptions and actual behaviors of internet use. Koff’s study found that most users were unable to consistently identify their total estimates of self-reported internet use from their calculated internet use, based on their answers to the questions asked during the study. This is a personal favorite study of Koff’s as this paper hit on everything she loves about the adolescent population and technology, and she was able to use her passion as leverage to conduct this study.

After her time with SMAHRT, Koff started working for a large survey research nonprofit at the University of Chicago where she is still working today. During her first three years at this company, Koff was able to contribute to a variety of different projects through her position as a Survey Operations Analyst. She worked on projects including the National Immunization Survey (CDC), the Survey of Doctorate Recipients (NSF), and U.S. Energy Information Administration (U.S. Department of Energy). Currently, Koff serves as a Survey Director working on the AmeriSpeak Panel, the first U.S. multi-client household panel to combine the speed and cost-effectiveness of panel surveys with enhanced representatives of the U.S. population.

Although Koff’s accomplishments continue to stack up, she still holds a special place in her heart for SMAHRTeam and the SMAHRTies she had to opportunity to work and collaborate with. Koff shared with us that “during my SMAHRT days, my favorite part of work was sitting in our scrum room all together and tossing ideas around to develop new and better practices.” The SMAHRT bond for Koff also reaches far beyond work, as she just recently stood as a bridesmaid in the wedding of a fellow SMAHRT alumna, claiming, “SMAHRTies are colleagues and friends for life!”

moreno-and-ros
Koff (right) and Dr. Megan Moreno (left) celebrating SMAHRT Alum Megan Pumper’s wedding

After examining all of Koff’s accomplishments, you would assume research has always been her niche; however, she actually never imagined herself in a research career until she took advantage of the research opportunity with SMAHRT. She originally joined as a Communications and Gender Studies double major, and started on the team conducting focus groups with underage college students discussing alcohol advertisements. Once her skillset and responsibilities on the team began to grow, she was motivated to enroll in a graduate program at Georgetown University in Communication, Culture and Technology. Now tackling this role at NORC, she continues to apply the skills she learned with her undergraduate experience at SMAHRT. “When I say that working with Megan [Moreno] changed my life – it really did!”